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ADHD, ASD & Anxiety

The Situated Behavioural Interventions Method (SBI-Method) aims at providing practical and individualized guidelines to parents of children and teenagers diagnosed with Attention Deficit & Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Anxiety and other executive functions difficulties, to help them succeed in specific daily life situations.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairing levels of inattention, dis­organization, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Inattention and disorganization entail inabil­ity to stay on task, seeming not to listen, and losing materials, at levels that are inconsistent with age or developmental level. Hyperactivity-impulsivity entails overactivity, fidgeting, in­ ability to stay seated, intruding into other people's activities, and inability to wait—symptoms are often in excessive for age or developmental level.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V APA 2018[1]) Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communica­tion and social interaction across multiple contexts, including deficits in social reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviours used for social interaction, and skills in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.

In addition to the social communication deficits, the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder requires the presence of restricted, re­petitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities.

Anxiety Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V APA 2018) describes Anxiety Disorders as disorders that share features of excessive fear and anxi­ety and related behavioural disturbances. Fear is the emotional response to real or per­ceived imminent threat, whereas anxiety is anticipation of future threat. Many of the anxiety disorders develop in childhood and tend to persist if not treated.

There are various forms of Anxiety Disorder :

  • Separation Anxiety Disorder: The individual with separation anxiety disorder is fearful or anxious about separation from attachment figures to a degree that is developmentally inappro­priate.

  • Social Anxiety Disorder (social phobia): the individual is fearful or anxious about or avoidant of social interactions and situations that involve the possibility of being scruti­nized.

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder:  The key features of generalized anxiety disorder are persistent and excessive anxiety and worry about various domains, including work and school performance, that the indi­vidual finds difficult to control.

[1] American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

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